Top 10 Best Binary Options Brokers and Trading Platforms 2020

Interstellar Profits Review | Does it SCAM or Real Binary System?

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Read this comprehensive Interstellar Profits Binary Options Forex Trading Software Review before you make any mistake and spend your hard earned in vain. Don't Buy Free Download Interstellar Profits Software. I've personally used the interstellar profits software and its free binary signals. Read my review by clicking the link below where I tell in details about interstellar profits.
Product Description:
Product complete : Interstellar Profits
Niche: Binary Options
Creator: Richard Hawksby
Official website : www.InterStellarProfits.Com
Money-back Promise : Yes (2months)
Delivery amount : fast Delivery
Bonus offer : affirmative($300)
Download: Free From Here [email protected]=#[email protected]=>>> www.InterStellarProfits.Com
What is Interstellar Profits?
Interstellar Profits is a great development by a famous, well established and experienced option trader with a viewpoint to enable investors to perform different tasks with ease and convenience. 
This is basically a software that is designed to help traders win and predict the market trend of their respective options. It works as a code to get financial success, shows traders how they can make money online, helps them to discover different ways to get huge returns on their investment. The software also provide analyses of market conditions so that traders can know what should be their next step. It gives different secret strategies that ultimately help traders to make thousands of dollars only for a few dollars.
**Interstellar Profits Review** 
I have done a huge research about this binary options tool, believe me, I just have to check all the info before I start any type of business. What I have found out is that this is incredible, binary options trading tool that has a really high performance. When I thought about getting 75% of profit without it taking too much time, I just knew I had to try it out, especially when it is free right now.
While it is nearly impossible for any binary options software to deliver a 100% success ratio, but Interstellar Profits is proving itself to be the most resourceful among all other systems available right beside this one. The extensive bets testing which had been done before it was actually made public has finally paid off and has made it rise as the top most binary options trading software. It is highly recommendable software to people as with 80% accuracy they get to bring in close to 185% of their cost daily. The availability of a dedicated support team also plays a vital role in helping the users in case of any dubiety. All plus points combined in one sends a pretty positive message to everyone in need of a perfect binary options trading software.
<==Download Free Interstellar Profits With Bonus $2000 From The Official Website==>
Is It a Scam?
Actually, it’s impossible for it to be a scam. You’re literally signing up to watch a pro trade. You get to see him instantly, in real time, each day making trades, winning and losing (and winning much more than losing). The results speak for themselves. He’s also helpful and teaches you along the way. I’m so impressed by this system because there is no doubt it is real. They don’t need to hype it up or make outrageous claims.
Does it actually work?
Many people will say that binary trading is a risky business and tend to stay away from it. But from my experience, high volatility means HIGH RETURN OF INVESTMENT. But this is where Interstellar Profits comes into play, the mathematical algorithm used by the software takes the guess work out choosing a winning profitable trade. You don’t have to be an expert. Like I said earlier, I have personally tested Interstellar Profits and found the success rate is about 70%. I don’t know about you, but a 70% chance of making a profitable trade is VERY GOOD! I’ve never come across anything like this before. Keep reading, below are my results for the past week or so…
The Benefits Of Interstellar Profits:
Watch over the Shoulder of a Pro Every Day and you can learn as you trade.
Averaging 85% Winning Weeks – which means more potential profits for you
Interstellar Profits Are Completely Transparent
No previous experience with binary options trading needed
Web based, no need for downloads, also works on phones, tablets
You Can Even Watch Them From Your Phone (iPhone Users – Photon Browser)
No PC Downloads Required
Multiple Signals Every Day – You will receive average of 4 – 5 signals daily which is good enough for you to earn quick cash for your day.
Can turn $500 into $2271 in fews days
The Negative Of Interstellar Profits:
100% foolproof success cannot be guaranteed, but over 80% of people have success with this
Must have computer or internet access
Must have about an hour a day (No something for nothing here)
Bottom Line:
If you are ready to start making money online, there has never been a better opportunity than now. If you enjoy surfing the web for countless hours looking for the next hot tip, never being able to get focused, being overloaded with conflicting information, and not making money online, you should probably leave this page right now and get back to that strategy.
Interstellar Profits is recommended! If you buy this product and start implementing what teaches you I have no doubts that you’ll make money. Interstellar Profits works and it’s not a scam.
This is what works for me. Overall, it is well worth its price. Highly recommended! You won’t regret it! ?
<==Download Free Interstellar Profits With Bonus $2000 From The Official Website==>
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Fast Profits System. Review. TOP. Binary. Options. Trading. Software. Scam. oR Legit. Download. fRee

Fast Profits System. Review. TOP. Binary. Options. Trading. Software. Scam. oR Legit. Download. fRee Fast Profits System. Review. TOP. Binary. Options. Trading. Software. Scam. oR Legit. Download. fRee Fast Profits System. Review. TOP. Binary. Options. Trading. Software. Scam. oR Legit. Download. fRee
Read my honest Comprehensive Fast Profits Review/reviews before your hard earned in vain. Free Download Fast Profits binary Fast Profits App Review Is Fast Profits App Scam? Find The Truth On Fast Profits App! "Read my honest review Software...
Product Description Of Fast Profits:
Product complete : Fast Profits
Niche: Binary Options
Fast Profits Official website : http://www.fastprofits.co/Bonus.php
Fast Profits Special Bonus URL
Money-back Promise : Yes (2months)
Delivery amount : fast Delivery
Bonus offer : affirmative($300)
Download: Free
What is Fast Profits? Fast Profits is a great development by a famous, well established and experienced option trader with a viewpoint to enable investors to perform different tasks with ease and convenience.
This is basically a software that is designed to help traders win and predict the market trend of their respective options. It works as a code to get financial success, shows traders how they can make money online, helps them to discover different ways to get huge returns on their investment.
The software also provide analyses of market conditions so that traders can know what should be their next step. It gives different secret strategies that ultimately help traders to make thousands of dollars only for a few dollars.
Earn With Fast Profits Review: I have done a huge research about this binary options tool, believe me, I just have to check all the info before I start any type of business. What I have found out is that this is incredible, binary options trading tool that has a really high performance. When I thought about getting 75% of profit without it taking too much time, I just knew I had to try it out, especially when it is free right now.
While it is nearly impossible for any binary options software to deliver a 100% success ratio, but Fast Profits is proving itself to be the most resourceful among all other systems available right beside this one. The extensive bets testing which had been done before it was actually made public has finally paid off and has made it rise as the top most binary options trading software...
It is highly recommendable software to people as with 80% accuracy they get to bring in close to 185% of their cost daily. The availability of a dedicated support team also plays a vital role in helping the users in case of any dubiety. All plus points combined in one sends a pretty positive message to everyone in need of a perfect binary options trading software.
Is Fast Profits a Scam? Actually, it’s impossible for it to be a scam. You’re literally signing up to watch a pro trade. You get to see him instantly, in real time, each day making trades, winning and losing (and winning much more than losing). The results speak for themselves. He’s also helpful and teaches you along the way. I’m so impressed by this system because there is no doubt it is real. They don’t need to hype it up or make outrageous claims.
How does it work? Many people will say that binary trading is a risky business and tend to stay away from it. But from my experience, high volatility means HIGH RETURN OF INVESTMENT. But this is where Fast Profits comes into play, the mathematical algorithm used by the software takes the guess work out choosing a winning profitable trade. You don’t have to be an expert. Like I said earlier, I have personally tested Fast Profits and found the success rate is about 70%. I don’t know about you, but a 70% chance of making a profitable trade is VERY GOOD! I’ve never come across anything like this before. Keep reading, below are my results for the past week or so…
The Benefits Of Fast Profits:
Watch over the Shoulder of a Pro Every Day and you can learn as you trade.
Averaging 85% Winning Weeks – which means more potential profits for you
Fast Profits Are Completely Transparent
No previous experience with binary options trading needed
Web based, no need for downloads, also works on phones, tablets
You Can Even Watch Them From Your Phone (iPhone Users – Photon Browser)
No PC Downloads Required
Multiple Signals Every Day – You will receive average of 4 – 5 signals daily which is good enough for you to earn quick cash for your day.
Can turn $500 into $2271 in fews days
The Negative Of Fast Profits:
100% foolproof success cannot be guaranteed, but over 80% of people have success with this
Must have computer or internet access
Must have about an hour a day (No something for nothing here)
Bottom Line: If you are ready to start making money online, there has never been a better opportunity than now. If you enjoy surfing the web for countless hours looking for the next hot tip, never being able to get focused, being overloaded with conflicting information, and not making money online, you should probably leave this page right now and get back to that strategy.
Fast Profits is recommended! If you buy this product and start implementing what teaches you I have no doubts that you’ll make money. Fast Profits works and it’s not a scam.
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[#2] how to make $3500 per a day with Binary Option Robot 100% Automated Trading Software..DOWNLOAD IT NOW FOR FREE [worldnews] 0 comments

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Cryptosoft Review 2020-Is it a Scam?

Cryptosoft Review 2020-Is it a Scam?

Most f the reviews we tend to have come back across reveal that the Cryptp soft platform is easy to
Their client service is very efficient. We did a live check and confirmed that they respond at intervals a moment. Moreover, they are available 24/7.
The Cryptp soft app is secure. They need all the mandatory measures in place to make sure data privacy.
The Cryptp soft System is considered by several among the most effective robots within the market nowadays. We have a tendency to realize this robot to perform virtually the same with Bitcoin Rush, another top bitcoin robot. Read the review of Bitcoin Rush for more data?
Cryptp soft registration method is straightforward, easy, and secure. You only want but 10 minutes to form an account and begin trading. Cryptp soft is a absolutely auto bot and is so accessible to everyone.

https://preview.redd.it/giu6kclgfnn51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f605d84ba2174f831ca825dbaffddf061b3a55b5
You do not want to perceive trading lingo to use Immediate Edge. The following steps can get you started with this robot.
STEP ONE: Fill the Signup type

Visit the Cryptp soft home page and register your name, phone number, and email in the provided kind. You will be asked to verify your phone variety via a text code and email through a link. CryptoVibes will ascertain that the Cryptp soft registration process is secure.

Their web site is SSL secured to confirm that hackers cannot steal personal information submitted through it. Cryptp soft cyber safety policy states that they're GDPR adherent. This suggests that they handle your knowledge with strict privacy.
STEP TWO: Get matched with a broker

The Cryptp soft Software then matches you with one in every of their partner brokers. The role of the broker is to receive deposits and facilitate transactions. We have a tendency to have determined that Cryptp soft only partners with regulated brokers.

With a regulated broker, they guarantee that your cash is safe. Reputable regulators such as the FCA, FSB, ASIC, and CySEC need brokers to segregate deposits and submit periodic reports on deposit usage.
You wold like a deposit of a minimum of $250 to trade with Immediate Edge. Do not confuse this quantity with the value of the robot. Cryptp soft does not need any license fee. The house owners of this robot build money by charging a small commission on the profits generated through the app
Deposits with Cryptp soft should be created through Wire Transfer, Visa, and MasterCard. It takes a few seconds for a deposit to reflect in an exceedingly trader’s account. Cryptp soft does not charge any deposit fees.
The Cryptp soft does provide a demo account to help traders familiarize themselves with its web-trader. CryptoVibes recommends that you are doing demo trading before going to live to trade. Please note that the demo is for demonstrative purposes solely.
The results you receive on the platform are primarily based on historical information and could therefore not mirror what you'll get in live trading.
The Cryptp soft live trader comes with features to help you outline the amount of risk you are willing to require per trade. You wish to go through the demo account to familiarize with these features. As mentioned severally in this review, you do not want specialized skills to use this robot.
Live trading with Cryptp soft involves determining the quantity of capital you plan to risk per trade and clicking the live button. Scan our review of Bitcoin Trader for one more straightforward to use the robot.
*Remember all trading risks and you shouldn’t risk more then you'll be able to afford to lose.
How to get the most out of Cryptp soft App
We have identified the following tips as paramount in guaranteeing that you make the most of Immediate Edge.
Begin with a deposit of $250 – Given the level of risk involved in trading with Immediate Edge, you should start with a tiny investment.
Follow crypto market news – You need to determine the type of reports that drives volatility high and capitalize on them. Cryptp soft claims to form the foremost profits throughout high market volatility.
Trade for eight hours per day – In keeping with Immediate Edge, trading for at least eight hours per day can help maximize profits. Cryptp soft is entirely auto, and hence you'll be able to leave the robot running as you continue together with your daily errands. You are doing not want more than twenty minutes per day to observe your account.
Close trading sessions at the tip of the day – Leaving open positions overnight is doubtless to translate to losses since the markets can change considerably overnight. It is better to shut sessions even if in the negative and start trading again the subsequent day. With a correct risk management strategy, there is no would like to fret concerning periodic losses.
Following our review we tend to realize Cryptp soft to be legit. But, traders ought to take additional caution, provided that this bot comes at a degree of risk. Whereas the app claims it's potential to form profits of up to 50percent per day, you'll be able to additionally lose the complete deposit inside seconds. This is often not sudden for a high-frequency trading robot.
We recommend that you just apply the required risk management measures. As a rule of thumb don't risk more than 10percent of your trading capital per trade. Also, never trade with an amount you cannot afford to lose. It is prudent to start small and add cash as you get conversant with the various features on the platform.
Recently, a brand new trading software was added to the bitcoin investment trade. This software is termed Cryptp soft and it is allegedly created by a corporation or organization called the International Council for Bitcoin.
There is additionally a letter out there on their web site that has been signed by someone named David. This person claims to own earned over 1,000,000 as a results of investing in bitcoins. What’s very shocking concerning this letter is that David claims to have earned that huge quantity in just one trade. If we have a tendency to place it in simple words, David became a millionaire overnight.
We tend to highly doubt that a trading system that has been launched recently will have such potential. To verify the main points of this software and to determine its legitimacy, we have a tendency to conducted our own research and investigation.
Cryptp soft is a bitcoin trading software that’s meant to assist newbie traders get involved in Cryptocurrency trading with less risk than ancient investment opportunities. Cryptp soft software was created by The International Council For Bitcoin who is PRO Bitcoin trader Group behind the Cryptp soft software. Notice out all concerning Cryptp soft software by The International Council For Bitcoin.
Cryptp soft Software may be a nice development by a famous, well established and experienced bitcoin trader Investors with a viewpoint to enable traders to perform different tasks with ease and convenience.

https://preview.redd.it/uuh85yghfnn51.png?width=1238&format=png&auto=webp&s=d0558e6e123114b6624d5a724b3b9b5983e717e1
Cryptp soft Software is essentially a Binary choices trading software that is designed to assist traders win and predict the Binary options trend of their respective choices. Cryptp soft APP works as a code to urge financial success, shows traders how they'll make money on-line, helps them to find different ways in which to induce huge returns on their investment. The Cryptp soft Trading Software additionally provides analyses of Market conditions so that traders will recognize what ought to be their next step. Cryptp soft System gives secret cryptocurrency ways that ultimately help binary traders to create thousands of greenbacks solely for some bucks.
Several individuals can say that Cryptocurrency Trading may be a risky business and tend to remain faraway from it. But from my expertise, high volatility means HIGH RETURN OF INVESTMENT in Crypto Market. But this can be where the Cryptp soft comes into play, the mathematical algorithm used by Cryptp soft Software takes the guesswork out choosing a winning profitable trade. You don’t must be an expert. Like I said earlier, I actually have personally tested the Cryptp soft and found the success rate is about ninety sevenpercent. I don’t apprehend concerning you, but a ninety seven% probability of earning a profitable trade is TERRIBLY GOOD! I’ve never come across something like this trading software before. Keep reading, below are my Cryptp soft results for the past week or so…
Watch over the Shoulder of a Professional Each Day and you'll be able to learn as you trade.
Averaging 97% Winning Weeks With Cryptp soft which suggests that more potential profits for you
Cryptp soft Software Are Fully Transparent
No previous experience with binary choices trading required
Web-based mostly, no need for downloads, additionally works on phones, tablets
You'll be able to Even Watch Cryptp soft Signals From Your Phone (iPhone Users — Photon Browser)
If you are ready to begin making cash online with an on the spot edge, there has never been a better chance than currently. If you enjoy surfing the web for countless hours trying for the next Trading Method Secrets, never being able to urge centered, being overloaded with conflicting information, and not creating cash on-line, you ought to probably leave this page right now and get back to that Cryptp soft System strategy
Cryptp soft bot could be a new cryptocurrency trading invention that comes with options that create this software stand out among others. It is conjointly an automatic trading platform that uses a smart program algorithm to detect favorable trading opportunities. It acts on its own or waits for a prompt command from the user depending on the software’s settings. But what makes this software unique and a favorite to individuals is what we have a tendency to shall unveil in this review.
There have been lots of unverified claims of how totally different cryptocurrency software have helped several people to make massive profits leading to Scam individuals. However, it's pertinent for cryptocurrency traders to verify if a particular trading software may be a scam or legit, which is also ?
After subjecting the features of the Cryptp soft bot software to a series of tests, the software isn't a scam however legit. The Cryptp soft bot is believed to have successful rate of 85%, that is a lot of than the 80percent benchmark for average software. The Cryptp soft bot has helped cryptocurrency traders to make sensible profits, which has been documented as testimonies on the software’s website.
Trading on the platform is straightforward and might not require experience. We had to verify the simplicity of the software, and we tend to discovered that the software is easy to navigate. The demo trading feature of the software makes it potential for brand new users to hold out trading activities in an exceedingly simulated atmosphere while not having to risk their investment. This any gives credence to the legitimacy of the software because it ensures that new users get accustomed to the features of the software before continuing to measure to trade
As earlier stated, the Cryptp soft bot could be a high-tech program software that comes with exceptional options that makes it among the simplest cryptocurrency trading software in the blockchain market. The outstanding features of the Cryptp soft bot embody the subsequent:
https://www.cryptoerapro.com/cryptosoft/

http://www.cryptoerapro.com/

https://twitter.com/cryptoerapro

https://www.instagram.com/cryptoerapro/

https://www.pinterest.co.uk/cryptoerapro/
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VFXALERT

BUSINESS ADDRESS:
51 Bakehouse Rd
Kensington,Victoria
3031
Phone:
0381189320
Website:
https://vfxalert.com/
Keywords:
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BUSINESS DESRIPTION:
The vfxAlert software provides a full range of analytical tools online, a convenient interface for working with any broker. In one working window, we show the most necessary data in order to correctly assess the situation on the market. The vfxAlert signals include direct binary signals, online charts, trend indicator, market news. You can use binary options signals online, in a browser window, without downloading the vfxAlert application.
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[ANN][ANDROID MINING][AIRDROP] NewEnglandcoin: Scrypt RandomSpike

New England
New England 6 States Songs: https://www.reddit.com/newengland/comments/er8wxd/new_england_6_states_songs/
NewEnglandcoin
Symbol: NENG
NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones.
Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt.
1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377
NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number
Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists
NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs.
The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity.
MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018)
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUl4u3cNGP63UUkfL0onkxF6MYgVa04Fn
CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software.
Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%.
NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones.
Youtube Video Tutorial
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdOoPvAjzlE How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHnRJvJRzZg
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj7NLMeNSOQ
Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG.
We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange.
Twitter Airdrop
Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners
Graphic Redesign Bounty
Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at: https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form.
Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues.
Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up: https://goo.gl/forms/L0vcwmVi8c76cR7m1
Milestones
Roadmap
NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/NENG_2020_Q3_report/NENG_2020_Q3_report.pdf
RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Hardfork Upgrade Proposal https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2020Q1_Report/Scrypt_RandomSpike_NENGv1.3.0_Hardfork_Proposal.pdf
NENG Security, Decentralization & Valuation
https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2019Q2_report/NENG_Security_Decentralization_Value.pdf
Whitepaper v1.0 https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/whitepaper_v1.0/NENG_WhitePaper.pdf
DISCORD https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Explorer
http://www.findblocks.com/exploreNENG http://86.100.49.209/exploreNENG http://nengexplorer.mooo.com:3001/
Step by step guide on how to setup an explorer: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/nengexplorer
Github https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin
Wallet
Android with UserLand App (arm64/armhf), Chromebook (x64/arm64/armhf): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.5
Linux Wallet (Ubuntu/Linux Mint, Debian/MX Linux, Arch/Manjaro, Fedora, openSUSE): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.3
MacOS Wallet (10.11 El Capitan or higher): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.2
Android with GNUroot on 32 bits old Phones (alpha release) wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0
Windows wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.3.0.1
addnode ip address for the wallet to sync faster, frequently updated conf file: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpumineblob/mastenewenglandcoin.conf-example
How to Sync Full Node Desktop Wallet https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/er6f0q/how_to_sync_full_node_desktop_wallet/
TWITTER https://twitter.com/newenglandcoin
REDDIT https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/
Cheetah CPU Miner Software https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpuminer
Solo Mining with GPU or ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52187727#msg52187727
How to Run Two Full Node in Same Desktop PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53581449#msg53581449
ASIC/GPU Mining Pools Warning to Big ASIC Miners Due to DynDiff Algo on top of Scrypt, solo mining is recommended for ASIC/GPU miners. Further more, even for mining pools, small mining pool will generate better performance than big NENG mining pool because of new algo v1.2.x post hard fork.
The set up configuration of NENG for scrypt pool mining is same as a typical normal scrypt coin. In other word, DynDiff on Scrypt algo is backward compatible with Scrypt algo. Because ASIC/GPU miners rely on CPU miners for smooth blockchain movement, checkout bottom of "Latest News" section for A WARNING to All ASIC miners before you decide to dump big ASIC hash rate into NENG mining.
(1) Original DynDiff Warning: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708 (2) New Warning on RandomSpike Spike difficulty (244k) introduced in RandomSpike served as roadblocks to instant mining and provide security against 51% attack risk. However, this spike difficulty like a roadblock that makes big ASIC mining less profitable. In case of spike block to be mined, the spike difficulty immediately serve as base difficulty, which will block GPU/ASIC miners effectively and leave CPU cheetah solo miners dominating mining almost 100% until next base difficulty reset.
FindBlocks http://findblocks.com/
CRpool http://crpool.xyz/
Cminors' Pool http://newenglandcoin.cminors-pool.com/
SPOOL https://spools.online/
Exchange
📷
https://shorelinecrypto.com/
Features: anonymous sign up and trading. No restriction or limit on deposit or withdraw.
The trading pairs available: NewEnglandcoin (NENG) / Dogecoin (DOGE)
Trading commission: A round trip trading will incur 0.10% trading fees in average. Fees are paid only on buyer side. buy fee: 0.2% / sell fee: 0% Deposit fees: free for all coins Withdraw fees: ZERO per withdraw. Mining fees are appointed by each coin blockchain. To cover the blockchain mining fees, there is minimum balance per coin per account: * Dogecoin 2 DOGE * NewEnglandcoin 1 NENG
Latest News Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.5 Released for Android/Chromebook Upgrade with armhf, better hardware support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg55098029#msg55098029
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.4 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade / Chromebook Support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54977437#msg54977437
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.3 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54898540#msg54898540
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.2 Released for MacOS Upgrade with Catalina https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54839522#msg54839522
Jul 19, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.1 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54830333#msg54830333
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining, Ubuntu 20.04 support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54803639#msg54803639
Jul 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54777222#msg54777222
Jun 27, 2020 - Pre-Announce: NENG v1.4.0 Proposal for Mobile Miner Upgrade, Android Mining Start in July 2020 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54694233#msg54694233
Jun 19, 2020 - Best Practice for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining mode https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54645726#msg54645726
Mar 15, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0.1 Released for better wallet syncing https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54030923#msg54030923
Feb 23, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG Core v1.3.0 Relased, Hardfork on Mar 1 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53900926#msg53900926
Feb 1, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike Proposal Published- NENG 1.3.0 Hardfork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53735458#msg53735458
Jan 15, 2020 - NewEnglandcoin Dev Team Expanded with New Kickoff https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53617358#msg53617358
Jan 12, 2020 - Explanation of Base Diff Reset and Effect of Supply https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/envmo1/explanation_of_base_diff_reset_and_effect_of/
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline_tradingbot version 1.0 is released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5121953.msg53391184#msg53391184
Sept 1, 2019 - NewEnglandcoin (NENG) is Selected as Shoreline Tradingbot First Supported Coin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52331201#msg52331201
Aug 15, 2019 - Mining Update on Effect of Base Difficulty Reset, GPU vs ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52169572#msg52169572
Jul 7, 2019 - CPU Mining on macOS Mojave is supported under latest Cheetah_Cpuminer Release https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51745839#msg51745839
Jun 1, 2019 - NENG Fiat project is stopped by Square, Inc https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51312291#msg51312291
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50714764#msg50714764
Apr 7, 2019 - Announcement of Fiat Project for all U.S. Residents & Mobile Miner Project Initiation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50506585#msg50506585
Apr 1, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50417196#msg50417196
Mar 27, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50332097#msg50332097
Mar 17, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50208194#msg50208194
Feb 26, 2019 - Community Project - NewEnglandcoin Graphic Redesign Bounty Initiated https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49931305#msg49931305
Feb 22, 2019 - Dev Policy on Checkpoints on NewEnglandcoin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49875242#msg49875242
Feb 20, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.1 Released to Secure the Hard Kork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49831059#msg49831059
Feb 11, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49685389#msg49685389
Jan 13, 2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner added support for CPU Mining on Mac https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49218760#msg49218760
Jan 12, 2019 - NENG Core v1.1.2 Released to support MacOS OSX Wallet https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49202088#msg49202088
Jan 2, 2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.1.0 is released for both Linux and Windows https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49004345#msg49004345
Dec 31, 2018 - Technical Whitepaper is Released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48990334#msg48990334
Dec 28, 2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.0.0 is released for Linux https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48935135#msg48935135
Update on Dec 14, 2018 - NENG Blockchain Stuck Issue https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48668375#msg48668375
Nov 27, 2018 - Exclusive for PC CPU Miners - How to Steal a Block from ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48258465#msg48258465
Nov 28, 2018 - How to CPU Mine a NENG block with window/linux PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48298311#msg48298311
Nov 29, 2018 - A Warning to ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708
Disclosure: Dev Team Came from ShorelineCrypto, a US based Informatics Service Business offering Fee for service for Coin Creation, Coin Exchange Listing, Blockchain Consulting, etc.
submitted by honglu69 to NewEnglandCoin [link] [comments]

Step-by-Step Guide for Adding a Stack, Expanding Control Lines, and Building an Assembler

After the positive response to my first tutorial on expanding the RAM, I thought I'd continue the fun by expanding the capabilities of Ben's 8-bit CPU even further. That said, you'll need to have done the work in the previous post to be able to do this. You can get a sense for what we'll do in this Imgur gallery.
In this tutorial, we'll balance software and hardware improvements to make this a pretty capable machine:

Parts List

To only update the hardware, you'll need:
If you want to update the toolchain, you'll need:
  1. Arduino Mega 2560 (Amazon) to create the programmer.
  2. Ribbon Jumper Cables (Amazon) to connect the Arduino to the breadboard.
  3. TL866 II Plus EEPROM Programmer (Amazon) to program the ROM.
Bonus Clock Improvement: One additional thing I did is replace the 74LS04 inverter in Ben's clock circuit with a 74LS14 inverting Schmitt trigger (datasheet, Jameco). The pinouts are identical! Just drop it in, wire the existing lines, and then run the clock output through it twice (since it's inverting) to get a squeaky clean clock signal. Useful if you want to go even faster with the CPU.

Step 1: Program with an Arduino and Assembler (Image 1, Image 2)

There's a certain delight in the physical programming of a computer with switches. This is how Bill Gates and Paul Allen famously programmed the Altair 8800 and started Microsoft. But at some point, the hardware becomes limited by how effectively you can input the software. After upgrading the RAM, I quickly felt constrained by how long it took to program everything.
You can continue to program the computer physically if you want and even after upgrading that option is still available, so this step is optional. There's probably many ways to approach the programming, but this way felt simple and in the spirit of the build. We'll use an Arduino Mega 2560, like the one in Ben's 6502 build, to program the RAM. We'll start with a homemade assembler then switch to something more robust.
Preparing the Physical Interface
The first thing to do is prepare the CPU to be programmed by the Arduino. We already did the hard work on this in the RAM upgrade tutorial by using the bus to write to the RAM and disconnecting the control ROM while in program mode. Now we just need to route the appropriate lines to a convenient spot on the board to plug the Arduino into.
  1. This is optional, but I rewired all the DIP switches to have ground on one side, rather than alternating sides like Ben's build. This just makes it easier to route wires.
  2. Wire the 8 address lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) to a convenient point on the board. I put them on the far left, next to the address LEDs and above the write button circuit.
  3. Wire the 8 data lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) directly below the address lines. Make sure they're separated by the gutter so they're not connected.
  4. Wire a line from the write button to your input area. You want to connect the side of the button that's not connected to ground (the one going to the chip).
So now you have one convenient spot with 8 address lines, 8 data lines, and a write line. If you want to get fancy, you can wire them into some kind of connector, but I found that ribbon jumper cables work nicely and keep things tidy.
The way we'll program the RAM is to enter program mode and set all the DIP switches to the high position (e.g., 11111111). Since the switches are upside-down, this means they'll all be disconnected and not driving to ground. The address and write lines will simply be floating and the data lines will be weakly pulled up by 1k resistors. Either way, the Arduino can now drive the signals going into the chips using its outputs.
Creating the Arduino Programmer
Now that we can interface with an Arduino, we need to write some software. If you follow Ben's 6502 video, you'll have all the knowledge you need to get this working. If you want some hints and code, see below (source code):
  1. Create arrays for your data and address lines. For example: const char ADDRESS_LINES[] = {39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53};. Create your write line with #define RAM_WRITE 3.
  2. Create functions to enable and disable your address and data lines. You want to enable them before writing. Make sure to disable them afterward so that you can still manually program using DIP switches without disconnecting the Arduino. The code looks like this (just change INPUT to OUTPUT accordingly): for(int n = 0; n < 8; n += 1) { pinMode(ADDRESS_LINES[n], OUTPUT); }
  3. Create a function to write to an address. It'll look like void writeData(byte writeAddress, byte writeData) and basically use two loops, one for address and one for data, followed by toggling the write.
  4. Create a char array that contains your program and data. You can use #define to create opcodes like #define LDA 0x01.
  5. In your main function, loop through the program array and send it through writeData.
With this setup, you can now load multi-line programs in a fraction of a second! This can really come in handy with debugging by stress testing your CPU with software. Make sure to test your setup with existing programs you know run reliably. Now that you have your basic setup working, you can add 8 additional lines to read the bus and expand the program to let you read memory locations or even monitor the running of your CPU.
Making an Assembler
The above will serve us well but it's missing a key feature: labels. Labels are invaluable in assembly because they're so versatile. Jumps, subroutines, variables all use labels. The problem is that labels require parsing. Parsing is a fun project on the road to a compiler but not something I wanted to delve into right now--if you're interested, you can learn about Flex and Bison. Instead, I found a custom assembler that lets you define your CPU's instruction set and it'll do everything else for you. Let's get it setup:
  1. If you're on Windows, you can use the pre-built binaries. Otherwise, you'll need to install Rust and compile via cargo build.
  2. Create a file called 8bit.cpu and define your CPU instructions (source code). For example, LDA would be lda {address} -> 0x01 @ address[7:0]. What's cool is you can also now create the instruction's immediate variant instead of having to call it LDI: lda #{value} -> 0x05 @ value[7:0].
  3. You can now write assembly by adding #include "8bit.cpu" to the top of your code. There's a lot of neat features so make sure to read the documentation!
  4. Once you've written some assembly, you can generate the machine code using ./customasm yourprogram.s -f hexc -p. This prints out a char array just like our Arduino program used!
  5. Copy the char array into your Arduino program and send it to your CPU.
At this stage, you can start creating some pretty complex programs with ease. I would definitely play around with writing some larger programs. I actually found a bug in my hardware that was hidden for a while because my programs were never very complex!

Step 2: Expand the Control Lines (Image)

Before we can expand the CPU any further, we have to address the fact we're running out of control lines. An easy way to do this is to add a 3rd 28C16 ROM and be on your way. If you want something a little more involved but satisfying, read on.
Right now the control lines are one hot encoded. This means that if you have 4 lines, you can encode 4 states. But we know that a 4-bit binary number can encode 16 states. We'll use this principle via 74LS138 decoders, just like Ben used for the step counter.
Choosing the Control Line Combinations
Everything comes with trade-offs. In the case of combining control lines, it means the two control lines we choose to combine can never be activated at the same time. We can ensure this by encoding all the inputs together in the first 74LS138 and all the outputs together in a second 74LS138. We'll keep the remaining control lines directly connected.
Rewiring the Control Lines
If your build is anything like mine, the control lines are a bit of a mess. You'll need to be careful when rewiring to ensure it all comes back together correctly. Let's get to it:
  1. Place the two 74LS138 decoders on the far right side of the breadboard with the ROMs. Connect them to power and ground.
  2. You'll likely run out of inverters, so place a 74LS04 on the breadboard above your decoders. Connect it to power and ground.
  3. Carefully take your inputs (MI, RI, II, AI, BI, J) and wire them to the outputs of the left 74LS138. Do not wire anything to O0 because that's activated by 000 which won't work for us!
  4. Carefully take your outputs (RO, CO, AO, EO) and wire them to the outputs of the right 74LS138. Remember, do not wire anything to O0!
  5. Now, the 74LS138 outputs are active low, but the ROM outputs were active high. This means you need to swap the wiring on all your existing 74LS04 inverters for the LEDs and control lines to work. Make sure you track which control lines are supposed to be active high vs. active low!
  6. Wire E3 to power and E2 to ground. Connect the E1 on both 138s together, then connect it to the same line as OE on your ROMs. This will ensure that the outputs are disabled when you're in program mode. You can actually take off the 1k pull-up resistors from the previous tutorial at this stage, because the 138s actively drive the lines going to the 74LS04 inverters rather than floating like the ROMs.
At this point, you really need to ensure that the massive rewiring job was successful. Connect 3 jumper wires to A0-A2 and test all the combinations manually. Make sure the correct LED lights up and check with a multimeteoscilloscope that you're getting the right signal at each chip. Catching mistakes at this point will save you a lot of headaches! Now that everything is working, let's finish up:
  1. Connect A0-A2 of the left 74LS138 to the left ROM's A0-A2.
  2. Connect A0-A2 of the right 74LS138 to the right ROM's A0-A2.
  3. Distribute the rest of the control signals across the two ROMs.
Changing the ROM Code
This part is easy. We just need to update all of our #define with the new addresses and program the ROMs again. For clarity that we're not using one-hot encoding anymore, I recommend using hex instead of binary. So instead of #define MI 0b0000000100000000, we can use #define MI 0x0100, #define RI 0x0200, and so on.
Testing
Expanding the control lines required physically rewiring a lot of critical stuff, so small mistakes can creep up and make mysterious errors down the road. Write a program that activates each control line at least once and make sure it works properly! With your assembler and Arduino programmer, this should be trivial.
Bonus: Adding B Register Output
With the additional control lines, don't forget you can now add a BO signal easily which lets you fully use the B register.

Step 3: Add a Stack (Image 1, Image 2)

Adding a stack significantly expands the capability of the CPU. It enables subroutines, recursion, and handling interrupts (with some additional logic). We'll create our stack with an 8-bit stack pointer hard-coded from $0100 to $01FF, just like the 6502.
Wiring up the Stack Pointer
A stack pointer is conceptually similar to a program counter. It stores an address, you can read it and write to it, and it increments. The only difference between a stack pointer and a program counter is that the stack pointer must also decrement. To create our stack pointer, we'll use two 74LS193 4-bit up/down binary counters:
  1. Place a 74LS00 NAND gate, 74LS245 transceiver, and two 74LS193 counters in a row next to your output register. Wire up power and ground.
  2. Wire the the Carry output of the right 193 to the Count Up input of the left 193. Do the same for the Borrow output and Count Down input.
  3. Connect the Clear input between the two 193s and with an active high reset line. The B register has one you can use on its 74LS173s.
  4. Connect the Load input between the two 193s and to a new active low control line called SI on your 74LS138 decoder.
  5. Connect the QA-QD outputs of the lower counter to A8-A5 and the upper counter to A4-A1. Pay special attention because the output are in a weird order (BACD) and you want to make sure the lower A is connected to A8 and the upper A is connected to A4.
  6. Connect the A-D inputs of the lower counter to B8-B5 and the upper counter to B4-B1. Again, the inputs are in a weird order and on both sides of the chip so pay special attention.
  7. Connect the B1-B8 outputs of the 74LS245 transceiver to the bus.
  8. On the 74LS245 transceiver, connect DIR to power (high) and connect OE to a new active low control line called SO on your 74LS138 decoder.
  9. Add 8 LEDs and resistors to the lower part of the 74LS245 transceiver (A1-A8) so you can see what's going on with the stack pointer.
Enabling Increment & Decrement
We've now connected everything but the Count Up and Count Down inputs. The way the 74LS193 works is that if nothing is counting, both inputs are high. If you want to increment, you keep Count Down high and pulse Count Up. To decrement, you do the opposite. We'll use a 74LS00 NAND gate for this:
  1. Take the clock from the 74LS08 AND gate and make it an input into two different NAND gates on the 74LS00.
  2. Take the output from one NAND gate and wire it to the Count Up input on the lower 74LS193 counter. Take the other output and wire it to the Count Down input.
  3. Wire up a new active high control line called SP from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Up.
  4. Wire up a new active high control line called SM from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Down.
At this point, everything should be working. Your counter should be able to reset, input a value, output a value, and increment/decrement. But the issue is it'll be writing to $0000 to $00FF in the RAM! Let's fix that.
Accessing Higher Memory Addresses
We need the stack to be in a different place in memory than our regular program. The problem is, we only have an 8-bit bus, so how do we tell the RAM we want a higher address? We'll use a special control line to do this:
  1. Wire up an active high line called SA from the 28C16 ROM to A8 on the Cypress CY7C199 RAM.
  2. Add an LED and resistor so you can see when the stack is active.
That's it! Now, whenever we need the stack we can use a combination of the control line and stack pointer to access $0100 to $01FF.
Updating the Instruction Set
All that's left now is to create some instructions that utilize the stack. We'll need to settle some conventions before we begin:
If you want to add a little personal flair to your design, you can change the convention fairly easily. Let's implement push and pop (source code):
  1. Define all your new control lines, such as #define SI 0x0700 and #define SO 0x0005.
  2. Create two new instructions: PSH (1011) and POP (1100).
  3. PSH starts the same as any other for the first two steps: MI|CO and RO|II|CE. The next step is to put the contents of the stack pointer into the address register via MI|SO|SA. Recall that SA is the special control line that tells the memory to access the $01XX bank rather than $00XX.
  4. We then take the contents of AO and write it into the RAM. We can also increment the stack pointer at this stage. All of this is done via: AO|RI|SP|SA, followed by TR.
  5. POP is pretty similar. Start off with MI|CO and RO|II|CE. We then need to take a cycle and decrement the stack pointer with SM. Like with PSH, we then set the address register with MI|SO|SA.
  6. We now just need to output the RAM into our A register with RO|AI|SA and then end the instruction with TR.
  7. Updating the assembler is easy since neither instruction has operands. For example, push is just psh -> 0x0B.
And that's it! Write some programs that take advantage of your new 256 byte stack to make sure everything works as expected.

Step 4: Add Subroutine Instructions (Image)

The last step to complete our stack is to add subroutine instructions. This allows us to write complex programs and paves the way for things like interrupt handling.
Subroutines are like a blend of push/pop instructions and a jump. Basically, when you want to call a subroutine, you save your spot in the program by pushing the program counter onto the stack, then jumping to the subroutine's location in memory. When you're done with the subroutine, you simply pop the program counter value from the stack and jump back into it.
We'll follow 6502 conventions and only save and restore the program counter for subroutines. Other CPUs may choose to save more state, but it's generally left up to the programmer to ensure they're not wiping out states in their subroutines (e.g., push the A register at the start of your subroutine if you're messing with it and restore it before you leave).
Adding an Extra Opcode Line
I've started running low on opcodes at this point. Luckily, we still have two free address lines we can use. To enable 5-bit opcodes, simply wire up the 4Q output of your upper 74LS173 register to A7 of your 28C16 ROM (this assumes your opcodes are at A3-A6).
Updating the ROM Writer
At this point, you simply need to update the Arduino writer to support 32 instructions vs. the current 16. So, for example, UCODE_TEMPLATE[16][8] becomes UCODE_TEMPLATE[32][8] and you fill in the 16 new array elements with nop. The problem is that the Arduino only has so much memory and with the way Ben's code is written to support conditional jumps, it starts to get tight.
I bet the code can be re-written to handle this, but I had a TL866II Plus EEPROM programmer handy from the 6502 build and I felt it would be easier to start using that instead. Converting to a regular C program is really simple (source code):
  1. Copy all the #define, global const arrays (don't forget to expand them from 16 to 32), and void initUCode(). Add #include and #include to the top.
  2. In your traditional int main (void) C function, after initializing with initUCode(), make two arrays: char ucode_upper[2048] and char ucode_lower[2048].
  3. Take your existing loop code that loops through all addresses: for (int address = 0; address < 2048; address++).
  4. Modify instruction to be 5-bit with int instruction = (address & 0b00011111000) >> 3;.
  5. When writing, just write to the arrays like so: ucode_lower[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step]; and ucode_upper[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step] >> 8;.
  6. Open a new file with FILE *f = fopen("rom_upper.hex", "wb");, write to it with fwrite(ucode_upper, sizeof(char), sizeof(ucode_upper), f); and close it with fclose(f);. Repeat this with the lower ROM too.
  7. Compile your code using gcc (you can use any C compiler), like so: gcc -Wall makerom.c -o makerom.
Running your program will spit out two binary files with the full contents of each ROM. Writing the file via the TL866II Plus requires minipro and the following command: minipro -p CAT28C16A -w rom_upper.hex.
Adding Subroutine Instructions
At this point, I cleaned up my instruction set layout a bit. I made psh and pop 1000 and 1001, respectively. I then created two new instructions: jsr and rts. These allow us to jump to a subroutine and returns from a subroutine. They're relatively simple:
  1. For jsr, the first three steps are the same as psh: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, MI|SO|SA.
  2. On the next step, instead of AO we use CO to save the program counter to the stack: CO|RI|SP|SA.
  3. We then essentially read the 2nd byte to do a jump and terminate: MI|CO, RO|J.
  4. For rts, the first four steps are the same as pop: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, SM, MI|SO|SA.
  5. On the next step, instead of AI we use J to load the program counter with the contents in stack: RO|J|SA.
  6. We're not done! If we just left this as-is, we'd jump to the 2nd byte of jsr which is not an opcode, but a memory address. All hell would break loose! We need to add a CE step to increment the program counter and then terminate.
Once you update the ROM, you should have fully functioning subroutines with 5-bit opcodes. One great way to test them is to create a recursive program to calculate something--just don't go too deep or you'll end up with a stack overflow!

Conclusion

And that's it! Another successful upgrade of your 8-bit CPU. You now have a very capable machine and toolchain. At this point I would have a bunch of fun with the software aspects. In terms of hardware, there's a number of ways to go from here:
  1. Interrupts. Interrupts are just special subroutines triggered by an external line. You can make one similar to how Ben did conditional jumps. The only added complexity is the need to load/save the flags register since an interrupt can happen at any time and you don't want to destroy the state. Given this would take more than 8 steps, you'd also need to add another line for the step counter (see below).
  2. ROM expansion. At this point, address lines on the ROM are getting tight which limits any expansion possibilities. With the new approach to ROM programming, it's trivial to switch out the 28C16 for the 28C256 that Ben uses in the 6502. These give you 4 additional address lines for flags/interrupts, opcodes, and steps.
  3. LCD output. At this point, adding a 16x2 character LCD like Ben uses in the 6502 is very possible.
  4. Segment/bank register. It's essentially a 2nd memory address register that lets you access 256-byte segments/banks of RAM using bank switching. This lets you take full advantage of the 32K of RAM in the Cypress chip.
  5. Fast increment instructions. Add these to registers by replacing 74LS173s with 74LS193s, allowing you to more quickly increment without going through the ALU. This is used to speed up loops and array operations.
submitted by MironV to beneater [link] [comments]

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submitted by marryjamess to u/marryjamess [link] [comments]

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submitted by binaryoptionstra to u/binaryoptionstra [link] [comments]

Fairlearn - A Python package to assess AI system's fairness

In 2015, Claire Cain Miller wrote on The New York Times that there was a widespread belief that software and algorithms that rely on data were objective. Five years later, we know for sure that AI is not free of human influence. Data is created, stored, and processed by people, machine learning algorithms are written and maintained by people, and AI applications simply reflect people’s attitudes and behavior.
Data scientists know that no longer accuracy is the only concern when developing machine learning models, fairness must be considered as well. In order to make sure that machine learning solutions are fair and the value of their predictions easy to understand and explain, it is essential to build tools that developers and data scientists can use to assess their AI system’s fairness and mitigate any observed unfairness issues.
This article will focus on AI fairness, by explaining the following aspects and tools:
  1. Fairlearn: a tool to assess AI system’s fairness and mitigate any observed unfairness issues
  2. How to use Fairlearn in Azure Machine Learning
  3. What we mean by fairness
  4. Fairlearn algorithms
  5. Fairlearn dashboard
  6. Comparing multiple models
  7. Additional resources and how to contribute

1. Fairlearn: a tool to assess AI system’s fairness and mitigate any observed unfairness issues

Fairlearn is a Python package that empowers developers of artificial intelligence (AI) systems to assess their system’s fairness and mitigate any observed unfairness issues. Fairlearn contains mitigation algorithms as well as a Jupyter widget for model assessment. The Fairlearn package has two components:
There is also a collection of Jupyter notebooks and an a detailed API guide, that you can check to learn how to leverage Fairlearn for your own data science scenario.

2. How to use Fairlearn in Azure Machine Learning

The Fairlearn package can be installed via:
pip install fairlearn
or optionally with a full feature set by adding extras, e.g. pip install fairlearn[customplots], or you can clone the repository locally via:
git clone [email protected]:fairlearn/fairlearn.git
In Azure Machine Learning, there are a few options to use Jupyter notebooks for your experiments:

a) Get Fairlearn samples on your notebook server

If you’d like to bring your own notebook server for local development, follow these steps:
  1. Use the instructions at Azure Machine Learning SDK to install the Azure Machine Learning SDK for Python
  2. Create an Azure Machine Learning workspace.
  3. Write a configuration file
  4. Clone the GitHub repository.
git clone [email protected]:fairlearn/fairlearn.git
  1. Start the notebook server from your cloned directory.
jupyter notebook
For more information, see Install the Azure Machine Learning SDK for Python.
b) Get Fairlearn samples on DSVM
The Data Science Virtual Machine (DSVM) is a customized VM image built specifically for doing data science. If you create a DSVM, the SDK and notebook server are installed and configured for you. However, you’ll still need to create a workspace and clone the sample repository.
  1. Create an Azure Machine Learning workspace.
  2. Clone the GitHub repository.
git clone [email protected]:fairlearn/fairlearn.git
  1. Add a workspace configuration file to the cloned directory using either of these methods:
  1. Start the notebook server from your cloned directory:
jupyter notebook

3. What we mean by fairness

Fighting against unfairness and discrimination has a long history in philosophy and psychology, and recently in machine learning. However, in order to be able to achieve fairness, we should first define the notion of it. An AI system can behave unfairly for a variety of reasons and many different fairness explanations have been used in literature, making this definition even more challenging. In general, fairness definitions fall under three different categories as follows:
In Fairlearn, we define whether an AI system is behaving unfairly in terms of its impact on people – i.e., in terms of harms. We focus on two kinds of harms:
We follow the approach known as group fairness, which asks: Which groups of individuals are at risk of experiencing harm? The relevant groups need to be specified by the data scientist and are application-specific. Group fairness is formalized by a set of constraints, which require that some aspect (or aspects) of the AI system’s behavior be comparable across the groups. The Fairlearn package enables the assessment and mitigation of unfairness under several common definitions.

4. Fairlearn algorithms

Fairlearn contains the following algorithms for mitigating unfairness in binary classification and regression:
https://preview.redd.it/5fzg767oh5051.png?width=898&format=png&auto=webp&s=731eab09b421c2dd3233ea9e184df136bf066739

5. Fairlearn dashboard

Fairlearn dashboard is a Jupyter notebook widget for assessing how a model’s predictions impact different groups (e.g., different ethnicities), and also for comparing multiple models along different fairness and accuracy metrics.
To assess a single model’s fairness and accuracy, the dashboard widget can be launched within a Jupyter notebook as follows:
from fairlearn.widget import FairlearnDashboard
# A_test containts your sensitive features (e.g., age, binary gender)
# sensitive_feature_names containts your sensitive feature names
# y_true contains ground truth labels
# y_pred contains prediction labels
FairlearnDashboard(sensitive_features=A_test,
sensitive_feature_names=['BinaryGender', 'Age'],
y_true=Y_test.tolist(),
y_pred=[y_pred.tolist()])
After the launch, the widget walks the user through the assessment set-up, where the user is asked to select:
  1. the sensitive feature of interest (e.g., binary gender or age)
  2. the accuracy metric (e.g., model precision) along which to evaluate the overall model performance as well as any disparities across groups.
These selections are then used to obtain the visualization of the model’s impact on the subgroups (e.g., model precision for females and model precision for males). The following figures illustrate the set-up steps, where binary gender is selected as a sensitive feature and the accuracy rate is selected as the accuracy metric:
After the set-up, the dashboard presents the model assessment in two panels, as summarized in the table, and visualized in the screenshot below:
https://preview.redd.it/juxlrmrkh5051.png?width=900&format=png&auto=webp&s=d92da30619369f5ab5109834ff7ff4ec3ad7f33d

6. Comparing multiple models

An additional feature that this dashboard offers is the comparison of multiple models, such as the models produced by different learning algorithms and different mitigation approaches, including:
As before, the user is first asked to select the sensitive feature and the accuracy metric. The model comparison view then depicts the accuracy and disparity of all the provided models in a scatter plot. This allows the user to examine trade-offs between algorithm accuracy and fairness. Moreover, each of the dots can be clicked to open the assessment of the corresponding model.
The figure below shows the model comparison view with binary gender selected as a sensitive feature and accuracy rate selected as the accuracy metric.

7. Additional resources and how to contribute

For references and additional resources, please refer to:
To contribute please check this contributing guide.
submitted by frlazzeri to deeplearning [link] [comments]

Fairlearn - A Python package to assess AI system's fairness

Fairlearn - A Python package to assess AI system's fairness
In 2015, Claire Cain Miller wrote on The New York Times that there was a widespread belief that software and algorithms that rely on data were objective. Five years later, we know for sure that AI is not free of human influence. Data is created, stored, and processed by people, machine learning algorithms are written and maintained by people, and AI applications simply reflect people’s attitudes and behavior.
Data scientists know that no longer accuracy is the only concern when developing machine learning models, fairness must be considered as well. In order to make sure that machine learning solutions are fair and the value of their predictions easy to understand and explain, it is essential to build tools that developers and data scientists can use to assess their AI system’s fairness and mitigate any observed unfairness issues.
This article will focus on AI fairness, by explaining the following aspects and tools:
  1. Fairlearn: a tool to assess AI system’s fairness and mitigate any observed unfairness issues
  2. How to use Fairlearn in Azure Machine Learning
  3. What we mean by fairness
  4. Fairlearn algorithms
  5. Fairlearn dashboard
  6. Comparing multiple models
  7. Additional resources and how to contribute

1. Fairlearn: a tool to assess AI system’s fairness and mitigate any observed unfairness issues

Fairlearn is a Python package that empowers developers of artificial intelligence (AI) systems to assess their system’s fairness and mitigate any observed unfairness issues. Fairlearn contains mitigation algorithms as well as a Jupyter widget for model assessment. The Fairlearn package has two components:
  • A dashboard for assessing which groups are negatively impacted by a model, and for comparing multiple models in terms of various fairness and accuracy metrics.
  • Algorithms for mitigating unfairness in a variety of AI tasks and along a variety of fairness definitions.
There is also a collection of Jupyter notebooks and an a detailed API guide, that you can check to learn how to leverage Fairlearn for your own data science scenario.

2. How to use Fairlearn in Azure Machine Learning

The Fairlearn package can be installed via:
pip install fairlearn
or optionally with a full feature set by adding extras, e.g. pip install fairlearn[customplots], or you can clone the repository locally via:
git clone [email protected]:fairlearn/fairlearn.git
In Azure Machine Learning, there are a few options to use Jupyter notebooks for your experiments:

a) Get Fairlearn samples on your notebook server

If you’d like to bring your own notebook server for local development, follow these steps:
  1. Use the instructions at Azure Machine Learning SDK to install the Azure Machine Learning SDK for Python
  2. Create an Azure Machine Learning workspace.
  3. Write a configuration file
  4. Clone the GitHub repository.
git clone [email protected]:fairlearn/fairlearn.git
  1. Start the notebook server from your cloned directory.
jupyter notebook
For more information, see Install the Azure Machine Learning SDK for Python.
b) Get Fairlearn samples on DSVM
The Data Science Virtual Machine (DSVM) is a customized VM image built specifically for doing data science. If you create a DSVM, the SDK and notebook server are installed and configured for you. However, you’ll still need to create a workspace and clone the sample repository.
  1. Create an Azure Machine Learning workspace.
  2. Clone the GitHub repository.
git clone [email protected]:fairlearn/fairlearn.git
  1. Add a workspace configuration file to the cloned directory using either of these methods:
  • In the Azure portal, select Download config.json from the Overview section of your workspace.
  • Create a new workspace using code in the configuration.ipynb notebook in your cloned directory
  1. Start the notebook server from your cloned directory:
jupyter notebook

3. What we mean by fairness

Fighting against unfairness and discrimination has a long history in philosophy and psychology, and recently in machine learning. However, in order to be able to achieve fairness, we should first define the notion of it. An AI system can behave unfairly for a variety of reasons and many different fairness explanations have been used in literature, making this definition even more challenging. In general, fairness definitions fall under three different categories as follows:
  • Individual Fairness – Give similar predictions to similar individuals.
  • Group Fairness – Treat different groups equally.
  • Subgroup Fairness – Subgroup fairness intends to obtain the best properties of the group and individual notions of fairness.
In Fairlearn, we define whether an AI system is behaving unfairly in terms of its impact on people – i.e., in terms of harms. We focus on two kinds of harms:
  • Allocation harms. These harms can occur when AI systems extend or withhold opportunities, resources, or information. Some of the key applications are in hiring, school admissions, and lending.
  • Quality-of-service harms. Quality of service refers to whether a system works as well for one person as it does for another, even if no opportunities, resources, or information are extended or withheld.
We follow the approach known as group fairness, which asks: Which groups of individuals are at risk of experiencing harm? The relevant groups need to be specified by the data scientist and are application-specific. Group fairness is formalized by a set of constraints, which require that some aspect (or aspects) of the AI system’s behavior be comparable across the groups. The Fairlearn package enables the assessment and mitigation of unfairness under several common definitions.

4. Fairlearn algorithms

Fairlearn contains the following algorithms for mitigating unfairness in binary classification and regression:
https://preview.redd.it/2inmvd6g75051.png?width=899&format=png&auto=webp&s=3386410974a9e3640ef8ef8a409a2f19f989330a

5. Fairlearn dashboard

Fairlearn dashboard is a Jupyter notebook widget for assessing how a model’s predictions impact different groups (e.g., different ethnicities), and also for comparing multiple models along different fairness and accuracy metrics.
To assess a single model’s fairness and accuracy, the dashboard widget can be launched within a Jupyter notebook as follows:
from fairlearn.widget import FairlearnDashboard
# A_test containts your sensitive features (e.g., age, binary gender)
# sensitive_feature_names containts your sensitive feature names
# y_true contains ground truth labels
# y_pred contains prediction labels
FairlearnDashboard(sensitive_features=A_test,
sensitive_feature_names=['BinaryGender', 'Age'],
y_true=Y_test.tolist(),
y_pred=[y_pred.tolist()])
After the launch, the widget walks the user through the assessment set-up, where the user is asked to select:
  1. the sensitive feature of interest (e.g., binary gender or age)
  2. the accuracy metric (e.g., model precision) along which to evaluate the overall model performance as well as any disparities across groups.
These selections are then used to obtain the visualization of the model’s impact on the subgroups (e.g., model precision for females and model precision for males). The following figures illustrate the set-up steps, where binary gender is selected as a sensitive feature and the accuracy rate is selected as the accuracy metric:
After the set-up, the dashboard presents the model assessment in two panels, as summarized in the table, and visualized in the screenshot below:

https://preview.redd.it/enskhh7i75051.png?width=900&format=png&auto=webp&s=db98cb058029655757df1946e42bca4831170451

6. Comparing multiple models

An additional feature that this dashboard offers is the comparison of multiple models, such as the models produced by different learning algorithms and different mitigation approaches, including:
  • fairlearn.reductions.GridSearch
  • fairlearn.reductions.ExponentiatedGradient
  • fairlearn.postprocessing.ThresholdOptimizer
As before, the user is first asked to select the sensitive feature and the accuracy metric. The model comparison view then depicts the accuracy and disparity of all the provided models in a scatter plot. This allows the user to examine trade-offs between algorithm accuracy and fairness. Moreover, each of the dots can be clicked to open the assessment of the corresponding model.
The figure below shows the model comparison view with binary gender selected as a sensitive feature and accuracy rate selected as the accuracy metric.

7. Additional resources and how to contribute

For references and additional resources, please refer to:
To contribute please check this contributing guide.
submitted by frlazzeri to learnmachinelearning [link] [comments]

MAME 0.215

MAME 0.215

A wild MAME 0.215 appears! Yes, another month has gone by, and it’s time to check out what’s new. On the arcade side, Taito’s incredibly rare 4-screen top-down racer Super Dead Heat is now playable! Joining its ranks are other rarities, such as the European release of Capcom‘s 19XX: The War Against Destiny, and a bootleg of Jaleco’s P-47 – The Freedom Fighter using a different sound system. We’ve got three newly supported Game & Watch titles: Lion, Manhole, and Spitball Sparky, as well as the crystal screen version of Super Mario Bros. Two new JAKKS Pacific TV games, Capcom 3-in-1 and Disney Princesses, have also been added.
Other improvements include several more protection microcontrollers dumped and emulated, the NCR Decision Mate V working (now including hard disk controllers), graphics fixes for the 68k-based SNK and Alpha Denshi games, and some graphical updates to the Super A'Can driver.
We’ve updated bgfx, adding preliminary Vulkan support. There are some issues we’re aware of, so if you run into issues, check our GitHub issues page to see if it’s already known, and report it if it isn’t. We’ve also improved support for building and running on Linux systems without X11.
You can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

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submitted by IQstockbroker to u/IQstockbroker [link] [comments]

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